Electronics industry occupies a key position in modern science and technology having wide application in various fields. A wide range of products come within the category of electronic goods which include analytical instruments, communication and broad casting equipment, consumer electronic goods, control and instrumentation goods, data processing systems, medical electronic equipments, office equipments, process control equipments etc. The manufacturing process in various types of electronics industry does not follow a fixed pattern. The process and process conditions vary according to the type of component and even the process for the same component (for example Printed Circuit board) varies according to the type of application. However, various processes normally encountered in electronic factories can be classified as under :
Manufacture of Silicon Chips (Integrated Circuits)
Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing
Assembly of Electronic components on the. Printed Circuit Boards
Electronic Components Manufacturing like Picture tubes, Micro motors, Speakers etc.
Fabrication Finishing and Assembly of mechanical plastic components
Sub-assembly and Final assembly of PCB, Mechanical and Plastic components forming finished products
Printed Circuit Board
Major component part of any Electronic equipment is the Printed Circuit Board. It consists of a laminated copper sheet on which various components like integrated circuits, capacitors, resistors etc. (according to the end requirement) are installed.The copper sheets are prepared for the above purpose and holes are drilled wherever components are to be mounted on the base plate (epoxy laminate fire resistant material) by CNC machine.
Then copper plating is done on the base plate through a special electroplating process. Plating of Acid resistance masking (Form in the circuit), applying the emulsion coating over the surface and exposing it by ultra violet light hardens the exposed area. Electro plating of tin lead lowers the mark that acts as a protective layer on the copper circuit. Chemical etching is done to remove the unwanted copper.
The plated tin lead forms protective layer and prevents chemical from corroding the copper. The boards are then washed and made ready for the assembly of components. In some cases, printed boards are made in layers one over the other according to the required end application.
Various components as stated above are assembled into the boards and fixed by soldering process. There are several types of soldering like spot soldering, wave soldering etc. The entire process of manufacturing Printed Circuit boards are robotized which includes insertion of components over the board and soldering them in one go. By and large, rest of the processes in Electronics Industries mainly relate to the sub assembly and final assembly of the products using printed circuit boards along with other components like picture tubes, electron tubes, tape deck drives, micro-motors etc. to manufacture respective electronic products. The processes are more of mechanical in nature besides electrical wiring of various terminals.
Several hazards are encountered in electronic manufacturing plants. Most are process-related. Most of these potential hazards are commonly found in other industries as well. Plating operations, flammable liquids, and flammable gases all present hazards that are widely recognized and for which effective loss prevention controls are established. The materials employed in the construction of the buildings require careful selection. It is not that the buildings should always be constructed with non¬combustible materials only. The selection of Building materials is dependent on various circumstances such as nature of process, possibility of ignition under normal working conditions and the fire prevention mechanism adopted. Generally, elements of structure and construction should be either non combustible or of a limited combustibility.
Ignition could occur in normal use and fire can spread (when ignition takes place) through penetrations in walls/floors.If extensive usage of false ceiling of combustible materials is present and also in the absence of fire stops and other passive materials in the utility provisions such as A.C Pipes etc., when run in the concealed space, fire could spread from one block to another.
Materials and products are stored conventionally in cartons, on racks, in block piles or free standing in pallets. There is increasing use of plastic or metal bins for storing small items before assembly. Finished products are usually packed in cardboard or expandable plastics and sometimes stored in buildings that are ill suited to storing high value stocks. The handling of the stored goods is done either manually or through conveyors or by means of forklifts. Unless the handling of goods to and fro from the warehouse area is in accordance with the established procedures, there is an imminent possibility of accident. Packing and Unpacking of goods within the warehouse premises, temporary warehouse to outside, storage beyond prescribed height etc. are some of the examples which induce hazards to the stored materials. Storage blocks for hazardous goods such as paints, thinners, solvents, chemicals etc., used in the process and/or Utility Blocks require more care as hazardous vapours are always likely to be present in the atmosphere. If adequate ventilation is not provided, these are very vulnerable blocks as far as fire is concerned.
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